Eye Muscle Disorders – Strabismus

Strabismus is the misalignment or wandering of one or both eyes either inward (called esotropia), outward (exotropia), up (hypertropia), or down (hypotropia). The condition can be constant or parents may only notice it occasionally; for instance, when their child is tired or looking at something very close up.

Blocked Tear Ducts

In some babies, the openings into the tear duct haven’t formed properly. This causes a blockage, and the tears have no place to drain. Because infants don’t produce tears until they are several weeks old, a blocked tear duct may not be noticeable at birth. A blocked tear duct may also be noticeable only when a baby cries, or in cold or windy weather when tears are stimulated.

Amblyopia Diagnosis and Treatment

Lazy eye (amblyopia) is decreased vision that results from abnormal visual development in infancy and early childhood. Although lazy eye usually affects only one eye, it can affect both eyes. Lazy eye is the leading cause of decreased vision among children. Left untreated, vision loss may range from mild to severe.

Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis

A child who has juvenile arthritis may develop problems with his or her eyes. The problems may be caused by the disease. In some cases, though, the problem may be caused by the medications the child takes for the disease. The most common eye problem that can develop in children with juvenile arthritis is uveitis. Uveitis is an inflammation of the inner parts of the eye in a section called the uvea.

Retinal Disease

When abnormal vessels or leakage is identified with an angiogram, laser treatment or pharmacological therapies may be indicated to prevent vision loss. The tests can also be useful for following the course of disease or response to treatment.


A cataract is a clouding of the normally clear lens of your eye. For people who have cataracts, seeing through cloudy lenses is a bit like looking through a frosty or fogged-up window. Clouded vision caused by cataracts can make it more difficult to read, drive a car, especially at night, or see the expression on a friend’s face.


A chalazion is a slowly developing lump that forms due to blockage and swelling of an oil gland in the eyelid. It is more common in adults than children and occurs most frequently in persons 30 to 50 years of age. Initially, a chalazion may appear as a red, tender, swollen area of the eyelid. However, in a few days it changes to a painless, slow growing lump in the eyelid. A chalazion often starts out very small and is barely able to be seen, but it may grow to the size of a pea. Often times they may be confused with styes, which are also areas of swelling in the eyelid.

Diabetic Eye Exams

If you have been diagnosed with diabetes, you may be at risk of losing your vision since your body does not utilize sugar properly and, when the sugar levels rise, damage to the retinal blood vessels may occur. This injury to the retinal vessels is known as Diabetic Retinopathy. Diabetic Retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in working-age adults.

Pediatric Eye Examinations and Eye care

Comprehensive eye exams are essential in the diagnosis and treatment of vision problems, injury and disease. Early detection allows for treatment to begin before the child experiences difficulty in school due to poor vision, or before any permanent damage has been done to the eye(s). Exams test visual acuity, eye tracking, and focusing skills, and detect problems such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, amblyopia, crossed eyes, dyslexia, and color blindness.